Monday, February 1, 2016


Embracing the winter season is a positive way of experiencing what the season has to offer. Instead of complaining about the short, greyish and snowy days, think about how chic winter is. You get to wear many accessories such as gloves, hats, warm scarfs. You get to savor hearty soups, stews and have a good excuse to eat chocolates and high calorie desserts... not to mention ice skating and all these amazing winter sports! The landscape turns white, the air is crisp and clean and we get to hold our most beloved person in front a fire romantic is that?  So cheer up!

In my past articles related to winter I offered fragrances that are more fashionable during cold weathers; fragrances that brought coziness and warmth; and uplifting perfumes to improve winter blues. I love these lists. But this year I wanted to add a different group of fragrances. The ones that either embrace or enhance the winter experience. I guess this time I don't want to offer you a scape route to false happiness. 
Fully embracing what Nature bring us brings real happiness and teach us how to adapt and grow.

Photo credit: Daniela Yaroslavsky* - Central Park NYC

I also thought that it would be interesting to bring a bit of science for a change. After all, here you will find much more than just perfume reviews!

Have you ever wondered why winter smells different than summer?
According to olfactory scientist Pamela Dalton from Monell Chemical Sense Center in Philadelphia it has to do with the speed of the movement of the molecules that tend to be slower when temperatures drop. That is exactly why your perfume seems to have less diffusion during winter than on a hot summer day, therefore we also tend to use heavier compositions such as orientals.
She also explains that we are less sensitive to smell and odors during the winter because our receptors inside our noses "seems to bury themselves deeper inside the nose" during this season. Neurologist Alan Dalton from Chicago explains that this is a protective response of our body against cold.
Being both neurologist and psychiatrist he adds "What you think a smell will be impacts whether you like it and what you perceive it to be. So, if you go outside in the winter and you are used to smelling snow or chestnuts in the fire or whatever you happen to smell outside, that's what you will interpret smells to be. Of course, the smells that are available to be smelled differ as the seasons change. Summer brings flowers and dirt and barbecue smoke. In the most wintery of places, there isn’t much outside on cold days except snow, blustery wind and cars warming up. To cope with the smell deprivation of winter, many people compensate by burning more scented candles, cooking more aromatic stews and baking more cookies. That creates a greater contrast between the indoor and outdoor environments.
"You probably have an uptick of indoor scents in the winter," Dalton said. "Homes are closed up, windows are closed. We concentrate the smells of cooking and living."

Photo credit: + Q Perfume Blog/Hoboken - NJ

Fragrances capturing cold

Snow by Demeter Fragrances - "Our Snow fragrance captures the scent of cold air and silent moments in the forest, after fresh snowfall.
Snow comes from water vapour in the air. If the air is cold enough the water vapour crystallizes around a speck of ice or dust and falls to the earth as snow. If there is no speck for the water vapour to crystallize on, it will remain in the air as a cloud. 
After years of effort, we were able to capture the essence of snow in a chilling, cool, clean and fresh scent, with just a touch of dust (necessary to form flakes) and earth (upon which to rest). The Fragrance Foundation USA recognised this unique fragrance as the Best Fragrance in America in 2000, awarding Snow two FiFi Awards – the fragrance version of an Oscar".

Walking in the Air by CB I Hate Perfume - The scent of new fallen snow.
Winter 1972 by CB I hate Perfume - The smell of untouched new fallen snow, hand woollen mittens, covered with frost, a hint of frozen forest and sleeping earth. 

 Photo credit: + Q Perfume Blog/Hudson River 

Fragrances capturing the the winter atmosphere:

Lago Del Desert by Fueguia 1883 - "Perhaps the only fragrance ever designed to recreate the scent of an immense body of ice. Named for a lake near the border of Argentina and Chile, this beautiful area near Mount Fitz Roy features forests, wildlife and a hanging glacier, which inspired this scent. Lago del Desierto is a frozen aquatic, with sweet melon-like watery notes laced with a bracing dose of ozone over clean musk and native Patagonian woods. While this shares some attributes with other aquatic scents, there is something very distinctive about the proportions of sweet, salt and ozone in this blend and the unusual woods and musk create a sense of a specific forest. We can testify that this smells frozen and wild and somewhat otherworldly. However, we have no idea if it actually smells like a glacier, having never encountered one in real life. We are happy to take the word of its creator that it does. A tribute to a place far away from anywhere else". Fragrance Notes: musk, lenga wood and coihue wood.

Winter Woods by Sonoma Scents - "A cozy perfume featuring ambered woods with a touch of smoke, perfect for fall and winter. The long-lasting drydown of amber, woods, musk, and oakmoss is slightly sweet and gently smoky". Fragrance Notes: Guaiacwood, cedar, sandalwood, birch tar, cade, oakmoss absolute, castoreum, amber, labdanum absolute, vetiver, ambergris, musk.

Fire Intense by Sonoma Scents - This smoky woods fragrance captures the oddly satisfying scent of smoked woods carried by the crisp fall air or emanating from an evening campfire. Fireside Intense opens with a fairly strong leather and smoke accord that mellows into a drydown of beautiful smoky woods, soft leather, and a touch of deep agarwoood. The fragrance has a very high percentage of natural oils and resins that provide a soft but lasting natural, outdoorsy dry down. Fragrance Notes: Guaiacwood, nagarmotha (Cyperus), Texas cedar, Himalayan cedar, Indian sandalwood, agarwood, birch tar and cade, leather, oakmoss absolute, castoreum, amber."

König by YOSH - "This elegant masculine scent captures the dual nature of man - gentleman and hunter, an alpine fragrance that evokes a king on a hunt, racing through the Bavarian forest with aromatic bitters and crisp red apples in the air. Beneath a layer of snow flowers, it opens into a white musc and deepens into the scent of saddle leather and smoky firewood. KÖNIG, is the second fragrance in the “M” Series by San Francisco perfumer, Yosh Han. “The “M” series is a departure from the ethereal quality of her previous collections and explores fragrances that evoke our deepest nature. KÖNIG embodies the archetypal King in the mature masculine bringing the qualities of mythology into present time.” The modern man who wears KÖNIG embraces his primal instincts while honoring the king within". Fragrance Notes:  bitters, sage, cypress, apple, smoky papyrus, snow flowers, bois d'landes, vetiver, white musc, saddle leather, amber, firewood.

Albaho by Sulékó - "As if transported to a distant country beyond the mountains, where the sky is always pure, an icy freshness of mint and eucalyptus takes hold of you. The atmosphere is one of icy purity. Traversing the immensity of the forest, a woody scent takes you to the highest treetops. The spicy freshness of pine, the dry hardness of cedar and the smoky finish of guaiac wood open you to unexplored horizons. Majestic and powerful, you smell the distant scent of balsams, benzoin, tolu balm, labdanum. These warm and suave resins portend the presence of a life being created. And you know that, in the same way the snow covers the earth, cradle of life, the swan’s plumage is hiding a living thing. The swan is a being coming into life. It metamorphoses itself, hidden from all eyes, far away through forests and over mountains, in the most complete tranquillity. It is focusing on the essential – seeking harmony and inner peace".

 Photo credit: + Q Perfume Blog/Hoboken - NJ

  Photo credit: + Q Perfume Blog/Ramat HaGolan - Israel

Photo credit: Daniela Yaroslavsky* - Central Park NYC

Past winter lists:


You can also search in the blog search engine WINTER and you will get many articles related to this season and many perfume options!

*Daniela Yaroslavsky is a Brazilian amateur photographer who captures the most beautiful landscapes of NY and NJ and who was kind enough to lend me some of these spectacular moments of her life abroad.

Tuesday, January 19, 2016



The visual authenticity trend has been in the market for a while now and it will continue to shine in 2016. As this trend has evolved, it has moved beyond small artisan brands and is becoming more mainstream itself. With the rise of niche perfumery consumers are fleeting away from mainstream products looking for more emotional and personal experiences with their fragrance (check my last article about NICHE) That said, visual authenticity is one response to shifting perfume consumer values to desire more real, quality and honest products. Products with uncomplicated appearance, yet are crafted; maybe even vintage inspired. Fragrances that can create inadvertent human connection.

The digital age is fostering a decline in human connection which is most prevalent office Gen Z consumers. Because of this, these shoppers are not responding to traditional established corporate brands. They want more. They demand more. They desire a real, trusted, human connection to the products and the brands that they consume. This connection can be expressed in different ways, from a connection to nature, to the written word, to the past, or to simply to other people. This is beyond hipster. This style is a rejection of technology. A pre-
computer era style, if you will.(Andrew Gibbs).

Some perfume brands have this in mind. To reconnect with perfume consumers. They do this by showcasing the craft, quality, and skill in both the product and the packaging design. Some of this trend's characteristics are: handwritten, raw, freeform or sketchy typography/ hand rendered, simple illustrations/ may include vintage inspired references or typography/ natural color palettes.

I have selected a few examples for you:

Le Labo manifesto defines that the idea that luxury relies on craftsmanship. In their website you will find the community craft which shows all craftsmen and craftswomen involved in the creation of a Le Labo fragrance. Le Labo labeling relies on customised labels with personal messages. All fragrances of the brand come with a Lab type of label with typewriter fonts, with the list of the ingredients, and all fragrances are mixed and labeled in front of the customers, so they can have a real and handcrafted experience. They are the pioneers of this type of uncomplicated and yet luxurious fragrance production.

Fragrance brand Demeter tries to capture real experiences and bottle them for you.
Their mission is "to create environments where people can rediscover the wonderful world of scents that is too often overlooked or forgotten in our modern multi-tasked world". In terms of labeling Demeter provides a simple label with little phrases such as "pick me up" Cologne spray suggesting a "conversation" with the consumer.

Maison Margiela is bringing a different type of labeling where you will find the inspiration, a fragrance description and a suggestion of the style on the bottle itself. Like Le Labo you will see here the trend of using typewriter font and simplicity.

Leo & Harper are innovating with a simple label that talks to you. It asks you questions!

Olfactive Studio chose labels that look like a cut piece of tape with handwritten typography. Very simple; very chic.

Swedish perfume house Agonist is now offering a new bottle and label design that brings just a list of the ingredients composing the fragrance and by that they are also bringing a clearer communication with consumers.

Authenticity and human touch is trending now due to social medias because they are allowing brands to be more accessible and more approachable and this type of connection is now extended to packing.The handcrafted look is brought by unique designs and handwritten fonts. The overwhelming amount of information that social media is offering is also overloading consumers in a way that they are longing for a simpler, clearer, easier and quicker way to communicate. Simple minimalistic designs are reflecting this need to quickly understand if the product fits their needs.

Like I have been saying for years "Less is always more!"

Thursday, December 10, 2015



Continuing to bring beauties for the Holidays today we will explore Italian fragrances!
Fleurs et Flammes EDP by Antonio Alessandria is the forth perfume launched by the brand and the most beautiful one; if not the best of 2015 at all!

Olfactive notes of: Galbanum, bergamot, citrus, summer fruits, green and mineral notes, carnation, lily, rose, white flowers, soft woods, almond milk effect, musk.

Description by + Q Perfume Blog: green, flowery, MILKY-almondy, warm, SMOKEY.

Antonio's nose signature is the combination of Italian citruses, beautiful heart notes and a warm heavier base. All fragrances of his collection are luxurious, well blended and beautifully composed. Fleurs et Flammes  EDP is not an exception. 

Photo credit: Antonio Alessandria

Here citruses were combined with galbanum and green notes, bringing to this fragrance the a verdant opening that will be much loved if you like the contrast of green and mellow. If you found Untitled by Margiela exquisite, you will find this fragrance much more interesting because you will find the combination of galbanum, citruses, musk, flowers and fire, but you won't find the fatty and ashtray notes of Untitled EDP that is not so appealing to the senses.Also, If you loved Champaca by Ormonde Jayne you will also love Fleurs et Flammes EDP because although both have no common notes in their compositions, they present somehow the same flower-creamy/milky-smoke-y combo beautifully explored.

Fleurs et Flammes EDP has a sensuality that is not imposed. It is revealed in flower petals and a mineral-animalic combination of notes. The mellow gourmandise touch is presented by a softly blended milk and almond-y warmth and it brings the idea of youth. Youth translated to freshness; first time falling in love kind of aura. 

Alessandria presents somehow a classic kind of perfume wrapped into a hip, contemporary fragrance. You won't be taken to a past distant era, but you will find the quality and the expertise that most modern launches are lacking these days.

Perfect for winter times, wearing Fleurs et Flammes EDP you will feel wrapped in both coziness and happiness.

You can find Fleurs et Flammes EDP at his website.

Tuesday, November 24, 2015


This is the time of the year where I share some of the fragrances that I think are worth checking to wear during the Holidays season or to share with someone you really love!
Nana-M is a fresh new brand from France, so chances are that you are giving a real exclusive gift!

Photo credit: Nana-M Parfums

Nana-M Parfums is the newest niche perfumery brand coming from the world's most famous perfume capital Grasse, launching this year a collection of signature fragrances called Rêves or dreams. 

The nose and owner Céline Ripert combined her expertise of decades in the perfumery industry, her identity and the savour faire grassois, creativity, sensibility and local raw materials, to offer to an exclusive clientele her olfactive dreams, presented in hand made luxurious round bottles developed by glass blowing artist Christophe Saba.

The brand is debuting 08 fragrances, all EDPs 20%, called Rêve Fou, Rêve Piquant, Rêve de Sensualité, Rêve Romantique, Rêve Royal, Rêve Erotique, Poudre de Rêve and Une Île, un Rêve.

RÊVE FOU EDP - It is a oriental fruity perfume combining traditional classic perfumery with a modern touch with notes of Pink Pepper CO2, Fir balsam Absolute, Davana EO, Bitter orange EO, Rose de Mai Absolute, Raspberry EO, Cinnamon EO, Violet, Benjoim, Siam, Vanilla Absolute, Patchouli EO and Incense. 

RÊVE PIQUANT EDP - A woody-spicy-citrusy fragrance playing with the contrast of cold fresh and deep warm notes of Ginger CO2, Grapefruit EO, Lemon EO, Green Mandarine EO, Black Pepper CO2, Litsea Cubeba EO, Cedarwood Virginia EO, White flowers, Benjoin, Vanilla Absolute, Guaic wood EO and Tobacco Absolute.

REVÊ DE SENSUALITÉ EDP - A chypre aromatic composition where sophistication and sensuality with simplicity is brought with notes of Lavender EO and Absolute, Tuberose Absolue, Patchouli EO, Sandalwood EO, Musks salicylates and Vanilla Absolute.

RÊVE ROMANTIQUE EDP - A dreamy yellow flowery romantic fragrance bringing notes of Green mandarine EO, Cocoa, Fir balsam Absolute, Apricot, Mimosa Absolute, Jasmine Absolute, Broom Absolute, Cassis Absolute, Amber, Everlasting Absolute, powdery musks and Hay EO.

RÊVE ROYAL EDP - An opulent, linear woody-leathery perfume with notes of Osmanthus Absolute, Orris Absolute, Davana EO, Cashmere and Guaiac woods EO, Mate Absolute, Honey, Soft leather, Benjoim, Vanilla Absolute and Cistus Absolute. 

RÊVE EROTIQUE EDP - Bringing an animalic sensuality the fragrance it combines notes of Davana EO, Rum Absolute, Cinnamon bark EO, Sandalwood, Violet, Guaiac wood EO, Vanilla Absolute, Tonka Absolute, Musk and animals amber.

POUDRE DE RÊVE EDP - A powdery and ultra feminine floral composition with notes of Pink pepper CO2, Ginger CO2, Freesia, Cedar Atlas OE, Orris, Rose de Mai Absolute, Heliotrope, Cashmere wood, Ambrette, Vetiver OE, Vanilla and Sandal OE. 

UNE ÎLE, UN RÊVE EDP - An aromatique white floral bouquet bringing the aura of Cannes with notes of Rosemary Absolute, Eucalyptus EO, Cistus EO, Ylang Ylang, Tuberose Absolute, Moroccan Jasmine Absolute, Orange bloom Absolute, Vanilla Absolute, Patchouli EO, Benjoim, Beewax Absolute. 

The Bottle
The fragrances are presented in heavy glass hand made bottles by artisan Christophe Saba combined with a classy red atomizer. When less is more, you won't find incrusted stones or golden charms; just a very beautiful thick round glass bottle with a Murano style with tiny bubbles in the bottom. 

The package
All fragrances come in a round black mate package with a beautiful velvety red ribbow.

Nana-M Parfums is offering in this debut collection perfumes that have in common some elements: most compositions have a strong presence. That said the person wearing it needs to have a personality that goes along with it. I had no problem with that even thou sometimes I like to wear low profile perfumes. I think it is for the fact that most of them are absolutely gorgeous. IMO the brand is soon to become a cult brand among perfumistas all over the world.

63ml refills and body milk are also available for all fragrances.
You can discover each fragrance by purchasing a discovery set of miniature bottles or free perfumed cards.
Nana-M can be purchased on line at or in Grasse at their showroom located at 52, Chemin de la Tête de Lion, Grasse - France.

The brand is offering real nice ideas/packing for Christmas gifts! 

Tuesday, November 3, 2015


"Calvin Klein used to be raw. In the ’90s the brand was seductive, uncensored, and with the help of a topless Kate Moss, the essence of cool".

In 1993 Kate Moss met with Calvin Klein. At that time the brand was in a crisis and Kate was not famous. Calvin Klein loved the fact that Kate was plain, real and beautiful. They wanted her to be shot shirtless, although she had small breasts. She was always shot in black-and-white, sometimes nude, sometimes in a black tank and cotton underwear. Her stark, fragile beauty amplified by lank hair and little makeup. Fabien Baron, the creative director launched what was defined as the heroin chic look. In a culture scared of Aids the sex approach of the campaign was very risky, but somehow it actually worked. The campaign brought the finances of Calvin Klein back to profit and also launched Kate's career. She was soon the sole face of Calvin Klein jeans, underwear and fragrance.

Today we know that Kate was closing the door of the excessiveness of the 80's. So did the fragrance the brand was about to launch - CK ONE EDT. 

CK ONE EDT was designed a fragrance that embodied, in its flat little screw- top bottle, the disaffected, sexually ambivalent grunge youth of the moment. CK ONE EDT, with its unconventional black-and-white advertisements filled with moping, androgynous models, was arguably the most perfectly tailored fragrance ever pitched to one market, breaking industry rules and records, selling twenty bottles per minute at its peak. 

A unisex brand that was so authentically grunge it was carried in record stores alongside albums by Nirvana.

The fragrance was created by Alberto Morillas and Harry Fremont, with top notes of pineapple, green notes, mandarin orange, papaya, bergamot, cardamom and lemon; middle notes of nutmeg, violet, orris root, jasmine, lily-of-the-valley and rose; and base notes of sandalwood, amber, musk, cedar and oakmoss.

It broke gender barriers and was marketed as a SHARED fragrance instead of unisex. CK ONE EDT  had an introductory budget of $17-18 million, which may be largest budget for any of the so-called prestige fragrances introduced in 1994 and reached 250 million dollars in sales in its first year.

"Be hot. Be cool. Just BE."

In 1996 Calvin Klein did it again with CK Be EDT. It was one of the best selling new scents EVER. 
The company described the scent as “raceless, genderless, ageless, and shared statement. ” It was called “the new fragrance for people.” The ads, once again shot by Avedon, were like a amalgam of all the work that had been put into creating a unique aesthetic for the brand, it was Heroin Chic at its finest: waifish and disoriented models who were young, multicultural and highly androgynous gathered into shot looking bored and gorgeous. The commercials showed Kate Moss speaking into the camera talking about “one more bad habit you have to break.” The ad ends with a voiceover: Be hot. Be cool. Just BE. Calvin Klein had done it. He created a media virus, an answer to any question that Generation X might have had: Just Be. All this from basic denim, a quiet unisex fragrance and white cotton underwear. His empire was built.
Each Calvin Klein ad campaign had its own characteristic image and its own particular target market. While the ads for CK ONE EDT portrayed groups of young, multicultural, mostly androgynous urban men and women, the CK Be EDT campaign featured an intimate and raw close-up of the individuals within the CK ONE EDT groups. According to Pauline Mancuso - Calvin Klein's CEO back then, ‘‘The CK be EDT campaign pulls you into these people’s lives.’’

"Freedom and possibilities of young people to explore the world".

CK in2U fragrances were launched in 2007. The brand launched two separated masculine and the feminine versions and it was described as the fragrance for the internet connected or techno-sexuals, a term the company made up to describe its intended audience of thumb-texting young people whose romantic lives are defined in part by the casual hookup. CK IN2U expressed freedom and possibilities of young people to explore the world. That same year, during its launch, Coty executives gathered to explain that the fragrances were  a portrait of a generation physically bold, but emotionally guarded; having grown up using computers as a primary means of interaction. Now young adults, they are post-Abercrombie, post-Juicy Couture and over any number of scents derived from the essences of Jennifer Lopez, Britney Spears, and Paris Hilton.

As Coty's Vice president for Global marketing Lori Singer explained about the fragrances targeted group of 20-ish youngsters  “They don’t want to feel that they are being marketed to or spoken at. They are much more empowered, but they are unshockable. They have seen everything from 9/11 to Paris Hilton and Britney Spears without underwear. They see everything instantaneously that goes on in the world.” 

To seem more authentic, Calvin Klein was trying to reach consumers on their own turf by creating an online community,, patterned after sites like MySpace and Facebook. The company invited students at film schools around the country to submit shorts addressing the theme of “what are you into?” and their clips were to be found on the site. The response to CK in2u among fragrance retailers at trade shows was so strong, the company said, that it delayed its introduction by a month to increase production to close to two million units, nearly twice the 258 initial volume of its Euphoria women’s fragrance in 2005. (Eric Wilson edited)

Gottlieb, the perfumer who created the fragrance explained that because Millennials are used to fast-moving information and images, the fragrance is meant to be quick-acting and immediately recognizable on the skin. Their food and drinks, like Smartwater and coffee-flavored colas, and gum charged with flavor crystals, all come in high-definition, intensified varieties. So their fragrance should also seem busy. 

“It is about two individuals defined by who they are, not what they are”

The newest launch for 2016 - CK2 EDT

Ten years later Calvin Klein is putting its chips again into a fragrance for a new generation - The Millennials. Not as unisex or shared, but now it is introducing a new term: gender-neutral. As Coty describes it: "CK2 embodies the thrill of life and celebrates the diversity of connections between two people. Two individuals defined by who they are, not what they are. one gender-free fragrance for a man or a woman, without prejudices, to unite and create an experience that can be shared together in love, lust and friendship. We come together void of stereotypes and free of conformity; a youthful connection between 2 people to celebrate the differences that make our connections richer and define what makes us, us. Life is better when we are 2."

The composition

Defined as urban woody - fresh scent, CK2 EDT is developed by International Flavors and Fragrances with notes of  wasabi, mandarin and violet leaf, wet cobblestones and orris concrete accords, rose absolute and a woody base of vetiver, sandalwood and incense.

According to Melisa Goldie, interviews by WWD, the brand wishes to target young consumers: “The launch of CK2 represents an extension of our overall brand strategy to reach a younger consumer base through modern, authentic storytelling. Given its relevant cultural messaging and youthful spirit, CK2 aligns well with this evolving approach to consumer engagement.”
Camillo Pane from Coty explained to WWD that they are targeting a new generation that values authenticity and fluidity in their everyday lives, and CK2 encapsulates this in every facet of the brand, whether via the scent, packaging, or campaign creative.

The company also gave details about its distribution strategy: “The launch of CK2 brings a new fragrance proposition to the marketplace with its relevant and disruptive brand messaging. We will launch exclusively in Macy’s in the U.S. in February, and then broaden distribution through alternative channels, while telling the story of CK2 through engaging media tools that resonate with the target audience.” (Distribution is expected to top out at 2,000 doors in the U.S. by yearend 2016).

The design of the new bottle

The bottle, a thick glass cylinder set in a clear base that allows the fragrance to be viewed either upside down or right side up, is intended to reinterpret minimalism and the minimalist design continues on the outside packaging, which is a drawing of the bottle inside.

The advertising campaign, shot by Ryan McGinley, includes both TV and print and is intended to celebrate the diversity of people’s connections. “It is about two individuals defined by who they are, not what they are. The campaign features four stories that fold into one another in unexpected ways. Four couples play out free spirited, raw narratives of today’s youth. The connections emphasize the thrill of life shared by two people and magnify the uniqueness of each relationship in our lives.

From what I watched, I saw young people finding sex partners via social media...pretty real. Twenty years later Calvin Klein is doing it again - portraying one entire generation in one fragrance, one concept.

Twenty two years from the launch of CK ONE EDT, twenty years after the CK be EDT and nine years after the launch of  CK IN2U EDT, one can affirm that if Luca Turin once said that fragrances are not about sex he was wrong. One can even study the sexual behaviour of generations just by analysing the marketing strategies to sell Calvin Klein's perfumes!

All photos are credited to Clavin Klein brand.

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